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Undescended testicles are a common childhood condition where a boy is born without one or both testicles in their scrotum.
Causes of undescended testicles
It's not known exactly what causes undescended testicles, but they are thought to occur if something disrupts the normal development of the testicles.
Diagnosing undescended testicles
Undescended testicles are usually diagnosed soon after the baby is born or during a routine check-up when they are 6-8 weeks old.
Treating undescended testicles
Undescended testicles will usually move down into the scrotum naturally by the time your child is 3-6 months old.
'He was bouncing around the day after the operation'
When he was two years old, James Addison had two operations for undescended testicles, says his mother, Laura.